### GATE- EC Electronics and Communication Engineering Exam Pattern

#### Exam Pattern

The GATE exam will be conducted by an ONLINE Computer Based Test (CBT). In all the papers, there will be a total of 65 questions carrying 100 marks, out of which 10 questions carrying a total of 15 marks are in General Aptitude (GA). In **GATE**- **EC: Electronics and Communication Engineering** the Engineering Mathematics will carry around **15% of the total marks**, the General Aptitude section will carry **15% of the total marks** and the remaining **70% percentage of the total marks** is devoted to the subject of the paper.

**Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)** carrying 1 or 2 marks each in all papers and sections. These questions are objective in nature, and each will have a choice of four answers, out of which the candidate has to mark the correct answer(s).

**Numerical Answer Questions** of 1 or 2 marks each in all papers and sections. For these questions the answer is a real number, to be entered by the candidate using the virtual keypad. No choices will be shown for this type of questions.

**General Aptitude (GA) Questions**

In all papers, GA questions carry a total of 15 marks. The GA section includes 5 questions carrying 1 mark each (sub-total 5 marks) and 5 questions carrying 2 marks each (sub-total 10 marks).

**Engineering Mathematics and Subject Knowledge**

These papers would contain 25 questions carrying 1 mark each (sub-total 25 marks) and 30 questions carrying 2 marks each (sub-total 60 marks).

**Note on Negative Marking for Wrong Answers**

For a wrong answer chosen for the multiple choice questions, there would be negative marking. For 1-mark multiple-choice questions, 1/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer. Likewise, for 2-mark multiple-choice questions, 2/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer. However, there is no negative marking for a wrong answer in numerical answer type questions.

**Test duration**- 3 hours

**Marking System** – For **1-mark** multiple-choice questions, **1/3 mark** will be deducted for a wrong answer. Likewise, for **2-marks** multiple-choice questions, **2/3 mark** will be deducted for a wrong answer. There is no negative marking for numerical answer type questions.

### Syllabus Summary

No. Of Subject | 9 |
---|---|

No. Of Unit | 31 |

No. Of Chapter | 119 |

- Sample and Hold Circuits
- ADCs and DACs

- Latches and flip-flops
- Finite State Machines

- Boolean Algebra
- Boolean Identities and Karnaugh map

- ROM
- SRAM
- DRAM

- Architecture
- Programming
- I/O Interfacing

- Basic Control System Component
- Block Diagram Representation
- Frequency Response
- Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist criteria
- Lag, Lead and Lead-Lag Compensators

- Fourier series and Fourier transform representations
- Sampling Theorem and Applications
- Discrete-time Signals
- LTI systems

- Nodal and Mesh Analysis
- Network Theorems
- Wye-Delta Transformation
- Steady State Sinusoidal Analysis
- Time Domain Analysis
- Solution of Network Equations
- Frequency Domain Analysis
- Linear 2-Port Network Parameters
- State Equations for Networks

- Antenna Types
- Antenna Arrays
- Basics of Radar
- Light Propagation In Optical Fibers

- Differential and Integral Forms
- Wave Equation
- Poynting vector

- Reflection and Refraction
- Propagation through Various Media
- Transmission Line

- Modes
- Boundary Conditions
- Dispersion Relations

- Energy bands in Intrinsic and Extrinsic Silicon

- Generation and Recombination of Carriers
- Poisson and Continuity Equations
- P-N junction, Zener Diode
- Integrated Circuit Fabrication Process

- Biasing, Bias Stability
- Frequency Response
- BJT and MOSFET

- Clipping, Clamping
- Rectifiers

- Simple op-amp circuits
- Sinusoidal oscillators
- Function generators
- Voltage reference circuits
- Power supplies

- Small Signal Equivalent Circuits

- PCM, DPCM, Digital Modulation Scheme
- SNR and BER for Digital Modulation
- Hamming Codes
- Timing and frequency Synchronization
- Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA

- Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation
- Spectra of AM and FM
- Circuits for Analog Communications

- Entropy, Mutual Information
- Channel Capacity Theorem

- Autocorrelation and Power Spectral Density
- Properties of White Noise
- Filtering of Random Signals

- Mean value theorem
- Chain rule
- Partial Derivatives
- Maxima and Minima
- Gradient
- Divergence and curl
- Directional derivatives
- Integration

- First order linear and nonlinear differential equations
- Higher Order Linear Odes
- Partial differential equations
- Laplace transforms
- Numerical methods for linear and nonlinear algebraic equations
- Numerical integration and differentiation

- Analytic Functions
- Cauchy's Integral Theorem
- Cauchy's Integral Formula
- Taylor's and Laurent's series
- Residue Theorem

- Vectors in Plane and space
- Vector Operations
- Gauss's, Green's and Stoke's Theorems

- Vector Space
- Linear Dependence and Independence
- Matrix Algebra
- Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
- Solution of Linear Equations

- Sampling theorems
- Conditional probability
- Mean, Median, Mode
- Poisson distribution
- Binomial distribution
- Regression analysis

- Solution of nonlinear equations
- Methods for Differential Equations
- Convergence Criteria

- Numerical computation
- Numerical Estimation
- Numerical Reasoning
- Data Interpretation

- English grammar
- Sentence Completion
- Verbal Analogies
- Word Groups
- Instructions
- Critical Reasoning
- Verbal Deduction

#### How to prepare

**Preparation Strategy**

**Make a proper Time Table**

It is very important that you ** make a time table and stick to it** and you will have an exact idea of what you are required to study and the time required for it.

**Concept clarity rather than rote learning**

It is essential that you have a clear idea of the ** formulas and concepts** rather than rote learning of things for the papers. While you might require it for memorizing formulas it is important that for other stuff you make sure you

**before moving on.**

**clear your basis and concepts****Prepare Notes**

It is very important ** make small notes** or a

**each covered topic and chapter which will come in handy at the time of revision. This will require you to be regular with your work but will surely make things easy at the time of revision.**

**comprehensive list of formulas on****Seek guidance**

It is not possible for you to know everything in your syllabus, at least not at the time of preparation. Sooner or later you will run into a concept or so which will give you trouble and then it is best you seek guidance from an instructor or a teacher. It is necessary that you clear your doubts at regular intervals and don’t prolong things for long. Getting into a good coaching class is nothing to be ashamed off and if anything a regular coaching class will enable you to avoid roadblocks in your preparation.

**Sample Papers**

Even though there may be a complete change in the exam pattern or the expected questions altogether,it is important that you practice on the sample and previous years question papers available for the engineering exam you’d be attempting. You will know the existing pattern and have a fair idea of the type of questions to expect in the paper along with the time constraint.

**Mock tests**

The paper pattern, duration of the paper and the number of questions to be attempted in the given amount of time is not something you will be able to pick up on the day of the examination. A Mock Test tests a student’s abilities as it not only provides a similar feel of real exams but also helps in building speed and confident to face the exam. Furthermore, they can improve their performance to get an extra edge in actual exams. Try to build up an Engineering Entrance Exam Test Prep MCQ Question Bank

**Time management**

Time management can be learnt through thorough practice and regular test taking. So it is important that you practice it and practice it well.

**Negative marking**

Most the entrance examinations will have negative marking and everyone would suggest you stay clear of questions are not sure about. But some experts are of the opinion that you answer the questions in which you are confused between an option or two because there will also be a chance of getting it right.

**Duration :**3 Hours

#### Important Instructions

Filling in Application Online 1. GOAPS: GATE Online Application Processing System (GOAPS website) has the web address http://appsgate.iisc.ernet.in It can also be accessed from the website of the respective Zonal GATE Offices or from the website of the GATE 2016 Organizing Institute. 2. Registration: A candidate must first register by providing a valid email address, mobile number and a GOAPS password. All communications from the GATE Offices will be sent to this email address (ONLY ONE PERSON CAN REGISTER WITH ONE e-mail ADDRESS). Give your personal mobile number because most of the communications may also be sent via SMS. GOAPS Password: The candidate chooses a password during Enrollment at GOAPS. This password must be remembered along with the GOAPS Enrolment ID to login to GOAPS. It is strongly encouraged to choose a password that cannot be guessed easily (it should not be the candidate’s name, date of birth, or some easily guessable string of numbers or letters like 12345 or abcd). 3. GOAPS Enrollment ID: Upon registration, an email containing the GOAPS Enrolment ID will be sent to the candidate. 4. Data Requirement for Application Filling: The following data will be required while filling the form at GOAPS. a) Personal information (name, date of birth, your personal mobile number, parents’ name, parents’ mobile number, etc.). b) Address for Communication (including PIN code), c) Eligibility degree details 13 d) College address, PIN code of college, e) GATE paper, choice of GATE examination cities, f) High quality image of your photograph conforming to the requirements specified in along with what type of photograph is accepted . g) Good quality image of your signature conforming to the requirements specified in h) Scanned copy of Degree Certificate or Certificate from Principal/HODs in pdf format. i) Scanned copy of Category/PwD Certificate (if applicable) in pdf format. j) Details of a valid ID Proof that you will carry to the examination hall. k) Your net-banking details. 5. Application Filling: The GOAPS allows you to enter data, “Save” partially filled form, “Logout”, and resume filling in by logging in again. The GOAPS portal is self-explanatory and user-friendly. Online help about using GOAPS is also available. 6. Before you make the payment, you will be shown a “Preview” of your application, where you have to carefully check for any errors. 7. Once you press “Confirm and Final Submit” button, no further changes to the application can be made by you. 8. For online payment follow the instructions given in Section for payment options. 9. Problems in Login into GOAPS –In case of forgotten user ID or password, follow instructions on the GOPAS portal to retrieve them.