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How to Prepare for AP EAMCET (Agriculture and Medical) 2016
1. DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD
The living world: What is living? Diversity in the living world; Taxonomic categories and taxonomical aids. Biological Classification: Five kingdom classification - Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia, Three domains of life (six kingdom classification), Viruses, Viroids, Prions & Lichens. Science of plants – Botany: Origin, Development, Scope of Botany and Branches of Botany. Plant Kingdom: Salient features, classification and alternation of generations of the plants of the following groups – Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.
2. STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN PLANTS – MORPHOLOGY
Morphology of flowering Plants Vegetative: Parts of a typical Angiospermic plant; Vegetative morphology and modifications - Root, Stem and Leaf - types; Venation, Phyllotaxy - Reproductive: Inflorescence – Racemose, Cymose and special types (in brief) - Flower: Parts of a flower and their detailed description; Aestivation, Placentation - Fruits: Types- True, False and parthenocarpic fruits.
3. REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS
Modes of Reproduction: Asexual reproduction, binary fission, Sporulation, budding, fragmentation, vegetative propagation in plants, Sexual reproduction in brief, Overview of angiosperm life cycle – Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants: Stamen, microsporangium, pollen grain. Pistil, megasporangium (ovule) and embryo sac; Development of male and female gametophytes. Pollination – Types, agents, Out breeding devices and Pollen – Pistil interaction. Double Fertilization; Post fertilisation events: Development of endosperm and embryo; development of seed, Structure of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous seeds, Significance of fruit and seed. Special modes – Apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony.
4. PLANT SYSTEMATICS
Taxonomy of angiosperms: Introduction - Types of Systems of classification (In brief). Semi- Technical description of a typical flowering plant. Description of Families: Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Liliaceae.
5. CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
Cell – The Unit of Life: Cell - Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life- overview of the cell. Prokaryotic cells, Ultra Structure of Plant cell (structure in detail and functions in brief), Cell membrane, Cell wall, Cell organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum, Mitochondria, Plastids, Ribosomes, Golgi bodies, Vacuoles, Lysosomes, Microbodies, Centrosome and Centriole, Cilia, Flagella, Cytoskeleton and Nucleus. Chromosomes: Number, structural organization; Nucleosome. Biomolecules: Structure and function of Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids and Nucleic acids. Cell cycle and Cell Division: Cell cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis - significance.
6. INTERNAL ORGANISATION OF PLANTS
Histology and Anatomy of Flowering Plants: Tissues - Types, structure and functions: Meristematic; Permanent tissues - Simple and Complex tissues. Tissue systems - Types, structure and function: Epidermal, Ground and Vascular tissue systems. Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous plants - Root, Stem and Leaf. Secondary growth in Dicot stem and Dicot root.
7. PLANT ECOLOGY
Ecological Adaptations, Succession and Ecological Services: Introduction. Plant communities and Ecological adaptations: Hydrophytes, Mesophytes and Xerophytes. Plant succession. Ecological services – Carbon fixation, Oxygen release and pollination (in brief).
8. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
Transport in Plants: Means of Transport - Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, Passive symports and antiports, Active Transport, Comparison of Different Transport Processes, Plant – Water Relations – Water Potential, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, Imbibition, Long Distance Transport of Water - Water Movement up a Plant, Root Pressure, Transpiration pull, Transpiration – Opening and Closing of Stomata, Transpiration and Photosynthesis,. Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients - Uptake of Mineral Ions, Translocation of Mineral Ions, Phloem Transport: Flow from Source to Sink - The Pressure Flow or Mass Flow Hypothesis. Mineral Nutrition: Methods to Study the Mineral Requirements of Plants, Essential Mineral Elements – Criteria for Essentiality, Macronutrients, Micronutrients, Role of Macro and Micro nutrients, Deficiency Symptoms of Essential Elements, Toxicity of Micronutrients, Mechanism of Absorption of Elements, Translocation of Solutes, Soil as Reservoir of Essential Elements, Metabolism of Nitrogen - Nitrogen Cycle, Biological Nitrogen Fixation, Symbiotic nitrogen fixation, Nodule Formation. Enzymes: Chemical Reactions, Enzymatic Conversions, Nature of Enzyme Action, Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity, Temperature and Ph, Concentration of Substrate, Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes, Co-factors. Photosynthesis in Higher Plants: Early
Experiments, Site of Photosynthesis, Pigments Involved in Photosynthesis, Light Reaction, The Electron Transport-Splitting of Water, Cyclic and Non cyclic Photo - phosphorylation, Chemiosmotic Hypothesis, Biosynthetic phase - The Primary Acceptor of CO 2 , The Calvin Cycle, The C4 Pathway, Photorespiration, Factors affecting Photosynthesis. Respiration of Plants: Cellular respiration, Glycolysis, Fermentation, Aerobic Respiration – Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, Electron Transport System (ETS) and Oxidative Phosphorylation, The Respiratory Balance Sheet, Amphibolic Pathway, Respiratory Quotient. Plant Growth and Development: Growth - Plant Growth, Phases of Growth, Growth Rates, Conditions for Growth, Differentiation, Dedifferentiation and Redifferentiation, Development, Plant Growth Regulators - Physiological Effects of Plant Growth Regulators, Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Ethylene, Abscisic acid, Seed Dormancy, Photoperiodism, Vernalisation.
Bacteria: Morphology of Bacteria, Bacterial cell structure - Nutrition, Reproduction – Sexual Reproduction, Conjugation, Transformation, Transduction, The importance of Bacteria to Humans. Viruses: Discovery, Classification of Viruses, structure of Viruses, Multiplication of Bacteriophages - The Lysogenic Cycle, Viral diseases in Plants, Viral diseases in Humans.
Principles of Inheritance and Variation: Mendel’s Experiments, Inheritance of one gene (Monohybrid Cross) – Back cross and Test cross, Law of Dominance, Law of Segregation or Law of purity of gametes, Deviations from Mendelian concept of dominance - Incomplete Dominance, Co-dominance, Explanation of the concept of dominance, Inheritance of two genes - Law of Independent Assortment Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance, Linkage and Recombination, Mutations - Significance of mutations.
11. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Molecular Basis of inheritance: The DNA - Structure of Polynucleotide Chain, Packaging of DNA Helix, The Search for Genetic Material, Transforming Principle, Biochemical Characterisation of Transforming Principle, The Genetic Material is DNA, Properties of Genetic Material (DNA versus RNA), RNA World, Replication – The Experimental Proof, The Machinery and the Enzymes, Transcription - Transcription Unit, Transcription Unit and the Gene, Types of RNA and the process of Transcription, Genetic Code - Mutations and Genetic Code, tRNA – the Adapter Molecule, Translation, Regulation of Gene Expression - The Lac operon.
Principles and processes of Biotechnology: Principles of Biotechnology - Construction of the first artificial recombinant DNA molecule, Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology – Restriction Enzymes, Cloning Vectors, Competent Host (For Transformation with Recombinant DNA), Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology – Isolation of the Genetic Material (DNA), Cutting of DNA at Specific Locations, Separation and isolation of DNA fragments, Insertion of isolated gene into a suitable vector, Amplification of Gene of Interest using PCR, Insertion of Recombinant DNA into the Host, Cell / Organism, Selection of Transformed host cells, Obtaining the Foreign Gene Product, Downstream Processing. Biotechnology and its applications: Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture - Bt Cotton, Pest Resistant Plants, Other applications of Biotechnology Insulin, Gene therapy, Molecular Diagnosis, ELISA, DNA fingerprinting, Transgenic plants, Bio-safety and Ethical issues - Biopiracy.
13. PLANTS, MICROBES AND HUMAN WELFARE:
Strategies for enhancement in food production: Plant Breeding - What is Plant Breeding? Wheat and Rice, Sugarcane, Millets, Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance, Methods of breeding for disease resistance, Mutation, Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to Insect Pests, Plant Breeding for Improved Food Quality, Single Cell Protein (SCP), Tissue Culture. Microbes in Human Welfare: Microbes in Household Products, Microbes in Industrial Products - Fermented Beverages, Antibiotics, Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules, Microbes in Sewage Treatment, Primary treatment, Secondary treatment or Biological treatment, Microbes in Production of Biogas, Microbes as Bio control Agents, Biological control of pests and diseases, Microbes as Bio fertilisers, Challenges posed by Microbes.
1. DIVERSITY OF LIVING WORLD
What is life? Nature, Scope & meaning of Zoology; Branches of Zoology; Need for classification - Zoos as tools for the study of taxonomy; Basic principles of Classification: Biological system of classification - (Phylogenetic classification only); Levels or Hierarchy of classification; Nomenclature – Bi & Trinominal; Species concept; Kingdom Animalia; Biodiversity – Meaning and distribution Genetic diversity, Species diversity, Ecosystem diversity (alpha, beta and gama), other attributes of biodiversity, role of biodiversity, threats to biodiversity, methods of conservation, IUCN Red data books, Conservation of wild life in India – Legislation, Preservation, Organisations, Threatened species.
2. STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION IN ANIMALS
Levels of organization, Multicellularity: Diploblastic & Triploblastic conditions; Asymmetry, Symmetry: Radial symmetry and Bilateral symmetry (Brief account giving one example for each type from the representative phyla); Acoelomates, Pseudocoelomates and Eucoelomates: Schizo & Entero coelomates (Brief account of formation of coelom); Tissues: Epithelial, Connective, Muscular and Nervous tissues. (make it a little more elobarative).
3. ANIMAL DIVERSITY – I INVERTEBRATE PHYLA
General Characters – (Strictly restrict to 8 salient features only - Classification up to Classes with two or three examples – Brief account only). Porifera; Cnidaria; Ctenophora; Platyhelminthes; Nematoda; Annelida (Include Earthworm as a type study strictly adhering to NCERT text book); Arthropoda; Mollusca; Echinodermata; Hemichordata.
4. ANIMAL DIVERSITY – II : PHYLUM : CHORDATA
General Characters – (Strictly restrict to 8 points only Classification upto Classes - Brief account only with two or three examples). Phylum: Chordata; Sub phylum: Urochordata; Sub phylum: Cephalochordata; Sub phylum: Vertebrata; Super class: Agnatha; Class Cyclostomata; Super class: Gnathostomata; Super class Pisces; Class: Chondricthyes; Class: Osteichthyes; Tetrapoda; Class: Amphibia (Include Frog as a type study strictly adhering to NCERT text book), Class: Reptilia; Class: Aves; Class: Mammalia.
5. LOCOMOTION & REPRODUCTION IN PROTOZOA
Locomotion: Definition, types of locomotor structures pseudopodia (basic idea of pseudopodia without going into different types), flagella & cilia (Brief account giving two examples each); Flagellar & Ciliary movement – Effective & Recovery strokes in Euglena, Synchronal & Metachronal movements in Paramecium. Reproduction: Definition, types. Asexual Reproduction: Transeverse binary fission in Paramecium & Longitudinal binary fission in Euglena. Multiple fission, Sexual Reproduction.
6. BIOLOGY & HUMAN WELFARE
Parasitism and parasitic adaptation; Health and disease: introduction (follow NCERT); Life cycle, Pathogenecity, Treatment & Prevention (Brief account only) 1. Entamoeba histolytica 2. Plasmodium vivax 3. Ascaris lumbricoides 4. Wuchereria bancrofti; Brief account of pathogenecity, treatment & prevention of Typhoid, Pneumonia, Common cold, & Ring worm. Drugs and Alcohol absuse.
7. TYPE STUDY OF PERIPLANETA AMERICANA
Habitat and habits; External features; Locomotion; Digestive system; Respiratory system; Circulatory system; Excretory system; Nervous system – sense organs, structure of ommatidium; Reproductive system.
8. ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT: Organisms and Environment: Ecology, population, communities, habitat, niche, biome and ecosphere (definitions only); Ecosystem: Elementary aspects only, Abiotic factors- Light, Temperature & Water (Biological effects only), Ecological adaptations; Population interactions; Ecosystems: Types, Components, Lake ecosystem; Food chains, Food web, Productivity and Energy flow in Ecosystem, Ecological pyramids – Pyramids of numbers, biomass and energy; Nutritient cycling – Carbon, Nitrogen & Phosphorous cycles (Brief account); Population attributes: Growth, Natality and Mortality, Age distribution, Population regulation; Environmental issues.
9. HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-I
Digestion and Absorption: Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats, egestion, Calorific value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats (for box item- not to be evaluated); Nutritional disorders: Protein Energy Malnutrion (PEM), indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea, Kwashiorkor - Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals; Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration; Respiratory volumes; Respiratory disorders: Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders – Asbestosis, Silicosis, Siderosis, Black Lung Disease in coal miners.
10. HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-II
Body Fluids and Circulation: Covered in I year composition of lymph and functions; Clotting of blood; Human circulatory system – structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system: Hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure - Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion – Ammonotelism, Ureotelism, Uricotelism; Human excretory system – structure of kidney and nephron; Urine formation, osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function – Renin - Angiotensin – Aldosterone system, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders: Uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis, dialysis using artificial kidney.
11. HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-III
Muscular and Skeletal System: Skeletal muscle – ultra structure; Contractile proteins & muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions; Joints. (to be dealt with relevance to practical syllabus); Disorders of the muscular and skeletal system: myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout, regormortis – Neural Control and Co-ordination: Nervous system in human beings – Central nervous system, Peripheral nervous system and Visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sensory perception; Sense organs; Brief description of other receptors; Elementary structure and functioning of eye and ear.
12. HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-IV
Endocrine System and Chemical Co-ordination: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system – Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary idea only); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators; Hypo and Hyper activity and related disorders: Common disorders – Dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome. (Diseases & disorders to be dealt in brief) - Immune system: Basic concepts of Immunology - Types of Immunity - Innate Immunity, Acquired Immunity, Active and Passive Immunity, Cell mediated Immunity and Humoral Immunity, Interferons, HIV and AIDS.
13. HUMAN REPRODUCTION
Human Reproductive System: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis & ovary; Gametogenesis, Spermatogenesis & Oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilization, Embryo development up to blastocyst formation, Implantation; Pregnancy, placenta formation, Parturition, Lactation (elementary idea) - Reproductive Health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control – Need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF-ET, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).
Heredity and Variation: Mendel’s laws of inheritance with reference to Drosophila. (Drosophila melanogaster Grey, Black body colour; Long, Vestigial wings), Pleiotropy; Multiple alleles: Inheritance of blood groups and Rh-factor; Co- dominance (Blood groups as example); Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Skin colour in humans (refer Sinnott, Dunn and Dobzhansky); Sex determination – in humans, birds, Fumea moth, genic balance theory of sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster and honey bees; Sex linked inheritance – Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans: Thalassemia, Haemophilia, Sickle celled anaemia, cystiefibrosis PKU, Alkaptonuria; Chromosomal disorders – Down’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome; Genome, Human Genome Project and DNA Finger Printing.
15. ORGANIC EVOLUTION
Origin of Life, Biological evolution and Evidences for biological evolution (palaeontological, comparative anatomical, embryological and molecular evidences); Theories of evolution: Lamarckism (in brief), Darwin’s theory of Evolution – Natural Selection with example (Kettlewell’s experiments on Biston bitularia), Mutation Theory of Hugo De Vries; Modern synthetic theory of Evolution – Hardy - Weinberg law; Types of Natural Selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Variations (mutations and genetic recombination); Adaptive radiation – viz., Darwin’s finches and adaptive radiation in marsupials; Human evolution; Speciation – Allopatric, sympatric; Reproductive isolation.
16. APPLIED BIOLOGY
Apiculture; Animal Husbandry: Pisciculture, Poultry management, Dairy management; Animal breeding; Bio-medical Technology: Diagnostic Imaging (X-ray, CT Scan, MRI), ECG, EEG; Application of Biotechnology in health: Human insulin and vaccine production; Gene Therapy; Transgenic animals; ELISA; Vaccines, MABs, Cancer biology, stem cells.
1. PHYSICAL WORLD
What is physics?, Scope and excitement of Physics, Physics, technology and society, Fundamental forces in nature, Gravitational Force, Electromagnetic Force, Strong Nuclear Force, Weak Nuclear Force, Towards Unification of Forces, Nature of physical laws.
2. UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS
Introduction, The international system of units, Measurement of Length, Measurement of Large Distances, Estimation of Very Small Distances, Size of a Molecule, Range of Lengths, Measurement of Mass, Range of Masses, Measurement of time, Accuracy, precision of instruments and errors in measurement, Systematic errors, random errors, least count error, Absolute Error, Relative Error and Percentage Error, Combination of Errors, Significant figures, Rules for Arithmetic Operations with Significant Figures, Rounding off the Uncertain Digits, Rules for Determining the Uncertainty in the Results of Arithmetic Calculations, Dimensions of Physical Quantities, Dimensional Formulae and dimensional equations, Dimensional Analysis and its Applications, Checking the Dimensional Consistency of Equations, Deducing Relation among the Physical Quantities.
3. MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE
Introduction, position, path length and displacement, average velocity and average speed, instantaneous velocity and speed, acceleration, kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion, relative velocity.
4. MOTION IN A PLANE
Introduction, scalars and vectors, position and displacement vectors, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by real numbers, addition and subtraction of vectors - graphical method, resolution of vectors, vector addition - analytical method, motion in a plane, position vector and displacement, velocity, acceleration, motion in a plane with constant acceleration, relative velocity in two dimensions, projectile motion, equation of path of a projectile, time of maximum height, maximum height of a projectile, horizontal range of projectile, uniform circular motion.
5. LAWS OF MOTION
Introduction, Aristotle’s fallacy, The law of inertia, Newton’s first law of motion, Newton’s second law of motion, momentum, Newton’s third law of motion, Impulse, Conservation of momentum, Equilibrium of a particle, Common forces in mechanics, friction, types of friction, Circular motion, Motion of a car on a level road, Motion of a car on a banked road, solving problems in mechanics.
6. WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
Introduction, The Scalar Product, Notions of work and kinetic energy, The work- energy theorem, Work, Kinetic energy, Work done by a variable force, The work-energy theorem for a variable force, The concept of Potential Energy, The conservation of Mechanical Energy, The Potential Energy of a spring, Various forms of energy, the law of conservation of energy, Heat, Chemical Energy, Electrical Energy, The Equivalence of Mass and Energy, Nuclear Energy, The Principle of Conservation of Energy, Power, Collisions, Elastic and Inelastic Collisions, Collisions in one dimension, Coefficent of Restitution and its determination, Collisions in Two Dimensions.
7. SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES AND ROTATIONAL MOTION
Introduction, What kind of motion can a rigid body have?, Centre of mass, Centre of Gravity, Motion of centre of mass, Linear momentum of a system of particles, Vector product of two vectors, Angular velocity and its relation with linear velocity, Angular acceleration, Kinematics of rotational motion about a fixed axis, Torque and angular momentum, Moment of force (Torque), Angular momentum of particle, Torque and angular momentum for a system of a particles, conservation of angular momentum, Equilibrium of a rigid body, Principle of moments, Moment of inertia, Theorems of perpendicular and parallel axes, Dynamics of rotational motion about a fixed axis, Angular momentum in case of rotations about a fixed axis, Conservation of Angular Momentum, Rolling motion, Kinetic Energy of Rolling Motion.
Introduction, Periodic and oscillatory motions, Period and frequency, Displacement, Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.), Simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion, Velocity and acceleration in simple harmonic motion, Force law for Simple harmonic Motion, Energy in simple harmonic motion, Some systems executing Simple Harmonic Motion, Oscillations due to a spring, The Simple Pendulum, Damped simple harmonic motion, Forced oscillations and resonance.
Introduction, Kepler’s laws, Universal law of gravitation, The gravitational constant, Acceleration due to gravity of the earth, Acceleration due to gravity below and above the surface of earth, Gravitational potential energy, Escape speed, Orbital Speed, Earth satellite, Energy of an orbiting satellite, Geostationary and polar satellites, Weightlessness.
10. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS
Introduction, Elastic behaviour of solids, Stress and strain, Hooke’s law, Stress-strain curve, Elastic moduli, Young’s Modulus, Determination of Young’s Modulus of the Material of a Wire, Shear Modulus, Bulk Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio, Elastic Potential Energy in a Stretched wire, Applications of elastic behaviour of materials.
11. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
Introduction, Pressure, Pascal’s Law, Variation of Pressure with Depth, Atmosphere Pressure and Gauge Pressure, Hydraulic Machines, Archimedes’s Principle, Streamline flow, Bernoulli’s principle, Speed of Efflux, Torricelli’s Law, Venturi-meter, Blood Flow and Heart Attack, Dynamic Lift, Viscosity, Variation of Viscocity of fluids with temperature, Stokes’ Law, Reynolds number, Critical Velocity, Surface tension, Surface Energy, Angle of Contact, Drops and Bubbles, Capillary Rise, Detergents and Surface Tension.
12. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Introduction, Temperature and heat, Measurement of temperature, Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature, Thermal expansion, Specific heat capacity, Calorimetry, Change of state, Triple Point, Regelation, Latent Heat, Heat transfer, Conduction, Convection, Radiation, Black body Radiation, Greenhouse Effect, Newton’s law of cooling and its experimental verification.
Introduction, Thermal equilibrium, Zeroth law of thermodynamics, Heat, Internal Energy and work, First law of thermodynamics, Specific heat capacity, Specific heat capacity of water, Thermodynamic state variables and equation of State, Thermodynamic processes, Quasi-static process, Isothermal Process, Adiabatic Process, Isochoric Process, Isobaric process, Cyclic process, Heat engines, Refrigerators and heat pumps, Second law of thermodynamics, Reversible and irreversible processes, Carnot engine, Carnot’s theorem.
14. KINETIC THEORY
Introduction, Molecular nature of matter, Behaviour of gases, Boyle’s Law, Charles’ Law, Kinetic theory of an ideal gas, Pressure of an Ideal Gas, Kinetic interpretation of temperature, Law of equipartition of energy, Specific heat capacity, Monatomic Gases, Diatomic Gases, Polyatomic Gases, Specific Heat Capacity of Solids, Specific Heat Capacity of Water, Mean free path.
Introduction, transverse and longitudinal waves, displacement relation in a progressive wave, amplitude and phase, wavelength and angular wave number, period, angular frequency and frequency, the speed of a travelling wave, speed of a transverse wave on stretched string, speed of a longitudinal wave (speed of sound) the principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves and normal modes, beats, Doppler effect: source moving, observer stationery, observer moving, source stationery, both source and observer moving.
16. RAY OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
Introduction, reflection of light by spherical mirrors, sign convention, focal length of spherical mirrors, the mirror equation, refraction, total internal reflection, total internal reflection in nature and its technological applications, refraction at spherical surfaces and by lenses, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction through a prism, dispersion by a prism, some natural phenomena due to sunlight, the rainbow, scattering of light, optical instructions, the eye, the simple and the compound microscope, refracting and Cassegrain reflection telescope.
17. WAVE OPTICS
Introduction, Huygens principle, refraction and reflection of plane waves using Huygens principle, refraction in a rarer medium (at the denser medium boundary), reflection of plane wave by a plane surface, the Doppler effect, coherent and incoherent addition of waves, interference of light waves and Young ‘s experiment, diffraction, the single slit diffraction, resolving power of optical instruments, the validity of ray optics, polarisation by scattering, polarisation by reflection.
18. ELECTRIC CHARGES AND FIELDS
Introduction, electric charge, conductors and insulators, charging by induction, basic properties of electric charges, Coulomb’s law, forces between multiple charges, electric field, electric field due to a system of charges, physical significance of electric field, electric field lines, electric flux, electric dipole, the field of an electric dipole for points on the axial line and on the equatorial plane, physical significance of dipoles, dipole in a uniform external field, continuous charge distribution, Gauss’s law, applications of Gauss’s law, field due to an infinitely long straight uniformly charged wire, field due to a uniformly charged infinite plane sheet, field due to a uniformly charged thin spherical shell.
19. ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL AND CAPACITANCE
Introduction, electrostatic potential, potential due to a point charge, potential due to an electric dipole, potential due to a system of charges, equipotential surfaces, relation between field and potential, potential energy of a system of charges, potential energy in an external field, potential energy of a single charge, potential energy of a system of two charges in an external field, potential energy of a dipole in an external field, electrostatics of conductors, electrostatic shielding, dielectrics and polarisation, electric displacement, capacitors and capacitance, the parallel plate capacitor, effect of dielectric on capacitance, combination of capacitors, capacitors in series, capacitors in parallel, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graff generator.
20. CURRENT ELECTRICITY
Introduction, electric current, electric current in conductors, Ohm’s law, drift of electrons and the origin of resistivity, mobility, limitations of Ohm’s law, resistivity of various materials, colour code of resistors, Temperature dependence of resistivity, electrical energy, power, combination of resistors series and parallel. Cells, EMF, internal resistance, cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff’s rules, Wheatstone Bridge, Meter Bridge, Potentiometer.
21. MOVING CHARGES AND MAGNETISM
Introduction, magnetic force, sources and fields, magnetic field, Lorentz force, magnetic force on a current carrying conductor, motion in a magnetic field, helical motion of charged particles, motion in combined electric and magnetic fields, velocity selector, Cyclotron, magnetic field due to a current element Biot – Savart’s law, Magnetic field on the axis of a circular current loop, Ampere’s circuital law, the solenoid and the toroid, force between two parallel current carrying conductors, the ampere (UNIT), torque on current loop, magnetic dipole, torque on a rectangular current loop in a uniform magnetic field, circular current loop as a magnetic dipole, the magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, the Moving Coil Galvanometer; conversion into ammeter and voltmeter.
22. MAGNETISM AND MATTER
Introduction, the bar magnet, the magnetic field lines, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, The dipole in a uniform magnetic field, the electrostatic analog, Magnetism and Gauss’s Law, The Earth’s magnetism, magnetic declination and dip, magnetisation and magnetic intensity, susceptibility, Hysteresis loop, magnetic properties of materials; Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism, Ferromagnetism, permanent magnets and electromagnets.
23. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
Introduction, the experiments of Faraday and Henry, magnetic flux, Faraday’s Law of induction, Lenz’s law and conservation of energy, motional electromotive force, energy consideration, a quantitative study, Eddy currents, inductance, mutual inductance, self inductance, AC generator.
24. ALTERNATING CURRENT
Introduction, AC voltage applied to a resistor, representation of AC current and voltage by rotating vectors - Phasors, AC voltage applied to an inductor, AC voltage applied to a capacitor, AC voltage applied to a series LCR circuit, Phasor – diagram solution, analytical solution, resonance, sharpness of resonance, power in AC circuit, the power factor, LC oscillations, transformers.
25. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
Introduction, displacement current, Maxwell’s equations, electromagnetic waves, sources of electromagnetic waves, nature of electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic spectrum: radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible rays, ultraviolet rays, X-rays, gamma rays.
26. DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION AND MATTER
Introduction, electron emission, Photoelectric Effect, Hertz’s observations, Hallwachs and Lenard’s observation, experimental study of photoelectric effect, effect of intensity of light on photocurrent, effect of potential on photoelectric current, effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential, Photoelectric effect and Wave theory of Light, Einstein’s Photoelectric equation energy Quantum of Radiation, particle nature of light, the photon, wave nature of matter, photo cell, Davisson and Germer experiment.
Introduction, Alpha particle scattering and Rutherford’s nucler model of atom, alpha- particle trajectory, electron orbits, atomic spectra, spectral series, Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, energy levels, the line spectra of the hydrogen atom, de Broglie’s explanation of Bohr’s second postulate of quantisation, LASER light.
Introduction, atomic masses and composition of nucleus, discovery of neutron, size of the nucleus, Mass - Energy and Nuclear Binding Energy, Nuclear Force, Radioactivity, Law of radioactive decay, Alpha decay, Beta decay, Gamma decay, Nuclear Energy, Fission, Nuclear reactor, nuclear fusion, energy generation in stars, controlled thermonuclear fusion.
29. SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS, MATERIALS, DEVICES AND SIMPLE CIRCUITS Introduction, classification of metals, conductors, and semiconductors on the basis of conductivity and energy bands, Band theory of solids, Intrinsic semiconductor, Extrinsic semiconductor, p-n junction formation, semiconductor diode, p-n junction diode under forward bias, p-n junction diode under reverse bias, Application of junction diode as a rectifier, special purpose p-n junction diodes, Zener diode, Zener diode as voltage regulator, Optoelectronic junction devices, Photo diode, light emitting diode, solar cells. Junction transistor, structure and action, Basic transistor circuit configurations and transistor characteristics, transistor as a switch and as an amplifier (CE – Configuration), Feedback amplifier and transistor oscillator, Digital Electronics and Logic gates, Integrated circuits.
30. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
Introduction, elements of a Communication system, basic terminology used in electronic communication systems, bandwidth of signals, bandwidth of transmission medium, propagation of electromagnetic waves, ground waves, sky waves, space wave, modulation and its necessity, size of the antenna or aerial, effective power radiated by an antenna, mixing up of signals from different transmitters, amplitude modulation, production of amplitude modulated wave, detection of amplitude modulated wave.
1. ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Sub- atomic particles - Atomic models- Rutherford’s Nuclear model of atom - Developments to the Bohr’s model of atom - Nature of electromagnetic radiation - Particle nature of electromagnetic radiation- Planck’s quantum theory - Bohr’s model for Hydrogen atom - Explanation of line spectrum of hydrogen - Limitations of Bohr’s model - Quantum mechanical considerations of sub atomic particles - Dual behaviour of matter - Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle - Quantum mechanical model of an atom. Important features of Quantum mechanical model of atom - Orbitals and quantum numbers - Shapes of atomic orbitals - Energies of orbitals - Filling of orbitals in atoms - Aufbau Principle, Pauli’s exclusion Principle and Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity – Electronic configurations of atoms - Stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
2. CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES
Need to classify elements - Genesis of periodic classification - Modern periodic law and present form of the periodic table - Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than100 - Electronic configuration of elements and the periodic table – Electronic configuration and types of elements s,p,d and f blocks - Trends in physical properties- a) Atomic radius, b) Ionic radius, c) Variation of size in inner transition elements, d) Ionization enthalpy, e) Electron gain enthalpy, f) Electro negativity - Periodic trends in chemical properties: a) Valence or Oxidation states, b) Anomalous properties of second period elements – diagonal relationship - Periodic trends and chemical reactivity.
3. CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE
Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bonding – Octet rule – covalent bond, Lewis representation of simple molecules (Lewis Structures) – Formal Charge – Limitation of octet rule - Ionic or electrovalent bond - Factors favourable for the formation of ionic compounds-Crystal structure of sodium chloride-General properties of ionic compounds - Bond Parameters – bond length, bond angle, and bond enthalpy, bond order, resonance-Polarity of bonds dipole moment - Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory. Predicting the geometry of simple molecules - Valence bond theory-Orbital overlap concept-Directional properties of bonds-overlapping of atomic orbitals – types of overlapping and nature of covalent bonds - strength of sigma and pi bonds-Factors favouring the formation of covalent bonds - Hybridisation- different types of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals- shapes of simple covalent molecules - Coordinate bond – definition with examples – general properties of compounds containing coordinate bonds - Molecular orbital theory – Formation of molecular orbitals, Linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO)-conditions for combination of atomic orbitals – Types of molecular orbitals - Energy level diagrams for molecular orbitals –Electronic configuration and molecular behavior - Bonding in some homo nuclear diatomic molecules - H 2 ,He 2 ,Li 2 ,B 2 ,C 2 ,N 2 and O 2 - Hydrogen bonding-cause of formation of hydrogen bond-Types of hydrogen bonds-inter and intra molecular-General properties of hydrogen bonds.
4. STATES OF MATTER: GASES AND LIQUIDS
Intermolecular forces - Thermal Energy - Intermolecular forces Vs Thermal interactions - The Gaseous State - The Gas Laws - Ideal gas equation - Graham’s law of diffusion – Dalton’s Law of partial pressures - Kinetic molecular theory of gases - Kinetic gas equation of an ideal gas (No derivation) deduction of gas laws from Kinetic gas equation - Distribution of molecular speeds – rms, average and most probable speeds-Kinetic energy of gas molecules - Behaviour of real gases – Deviation from Ideal gas behaviour – Compressibility factor Vs Pressure diagrams of real gases - Liquefaction of gases - Liquid State – Properties of Liquids in terms of Inter molecular interactions – Vapour pressure, Viscosity and Surface tension (Qualitative idea only. No mathematical derivation).
Some Basic Concepts – Properties of matter – uncertainty in Measurement-significant figures, dimensional analysis. Laws of Chemical Combinations – Law of Conservation of Mass, Law of Definite Proportions, Law of Multiple Proportions, Gay Lussac’s Law of Gaseous Volumes, Dalton’s Atomic Theory, Avogadro Law, Principles, Examples - Atomic and molecular masses- mole concept and molar mass concept of equivalent weight - Percentage composition of compounds and calculations of empirical and molecular formulae of compounds - Stoichiometry and stoichiometric calculations - Methods of Expressing concentrations of solutions-mass percent, mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality - Redox reactions-classical idea of redox reactions, oxidation and reduction reactions-redox reactions in terms of electron transfer. Oxidation number concept - Types of Redox reactions- combination, decomposition, displacement and disproportionation reactions - Balancing of redox reactions – oxidation number method Half reaction (ion-electron) method - Redox reactions in Titrimetry.
Thermodynamic Terms - The system and the surroundings - Types of systems and surroundings - The state of the system - The Internal Energy as a State Function – (a) Work (b) Heat (c) The general case, the first law of Thermodynamics – Applications - Work - Enthalpy, H- a useful new state function - Extensive and intensive properties - Heat capacity - The relationship between C P and Cv - Measurement of U and H: Calorimetry - Enthalpy change, r H of reactions – reaction Enthalpy (a) Standard enthalpy of reactions - (b) Enthalpy changes during phase transformations - (c) Standard enthalpy of formation - (d) Thermo chemical equations - (e) Hess’s law of constant Heat summation - Enthalpies for different types of reactions – (a) Standard enthalpy of combustion ( c H O ) – (b) Enthalpy of atomization ( a H O ) – (c) Bond Enthalpy ( bond H O ) – (d) Enthalpy of solution ( sol H O ) and dilution – lattice enthalpy – Spontaneity – (a) Is decrease in enthalpy a criterion for spontaneity? – (b) Entropy and spontaneity, the second law of thermodynamics – (c) Gibbs Energy and spontaneity – Gibbs Energy change and equilibrium - Absolute entropy and the third law of thermodynamics.
7. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM AND ACIDS-BASES
Equilibrium in Physical process - Equilibrium in chemical process – Dynamic Equilibrium - Law of chemical Equilibrium - Law of mass action and Equilibrium constant – Homogeneous Equilibria, Equilibrium constant in gaseous systems. Relationship between K P and K c - Heterogeneous Equilibria - Applications of Equilibrium constant - Relationship between Equilibrium constant K, reaction quotient Q and Gibbs energy G - Factors affecting Equilibria-Le-chatelier principle application - to industrial synthesis of Ammonia and Sulphur trioxide - Ionic Equilibrium in solutions - Acids, bases and salts- Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis concepts of acids and bases - Ionisation of Acids and Bases –Ionisation constant of water and it’s ionic product- pH scale- ionisation constants of weak acids-ionisation of weak bases-relation between Ka and Kb-Di and poly basic acids and di and poly acidic Bases-Factors affecting acid strength-Common ion effect in the ionization of acids and bases-Hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions - Buffer solutions-designing of buffer solution-Preparation of Acidic buffer – Solubility Equilibria of sparingly soluble salts. Solubility - product constant Common ion effect on solubility of Ionic salts.
8. HYDROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS
Position of hydrogen in the periodic table - Dihydrogen-Occurance and Isotopes - Preparation of Dihydrogen - Properties of Dihydrogen - Hydrides: Ionic, covalent, and non-stiochiometric hydrides - Water: Physical properties; structure of water, ice - Chemical properties of water; hard and soft water Temporary and permanent hardness of water - Hydrogen peroxide: Preparation; Physical properties; structure and chemical properties; storage and uses - Heavy Water - Hydrogen as a fuel.
9. THE s – BLOCK ELEMENTS: (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS)
Group 1 Elements – Alkali metals; Electronic configurations; - Atomic and Ionic radii; Ionization enthalpy; Hydration enthalpy; Physical properties; Chemical properties; Uses - General characteristics of the compounds of the alkali metals: Oxides; Halides; Salts of Oxy Acids - Anomalous properties of Lithium: Differences and similarities with other alkali metals. Diagonal relationship; similarities between Lithium and Magnesium - Some important compounds of Sodium: Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium hydrogen carbonate - Biological importance of Sodium and Potassium - Group 2 Elements: Alkaline earth elements; Electronic configuration – atomic and ionic radii - Ionization enthalpy; Hydration enthalpy; Physical properties, Chemical properties; Uses - General characteristics of compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals: Oxides, hydroxides, halides, salts of Oxyacids – (Carbonates; Sulphates and Nitrates) - Anomalous behavior of Beryllium; its diagonal relationship with Aluminum - Some important compounds of calcium: Preparation and uses of Calcium Oxide ; Calcium Hydroxide; Calcium Carbonate;Plaster of Paris; Cement - Biological importance of Calcium and Magnesium.
10. p - BLOCK ELEMENTS GROUP - 13 ( BORON FAMILY)
General introduction – Electronic configuration, Atomic radii, Ionization enthalpy, Electro negativity; Physical & Chemical properties - Important trends and anomalous properties of boron - Some important compounds of boron – Borax, Ortho boric acid,diborane - Uses of boron, aluminium and their compounds.
11. p-BLOCK ELEMENTS – GROUP - 14 ( CARBON FAMILY)
General introduction - Electronic configuration, Atomic radii, Ionization enthalpy, Electro negativity; Physical & Chemical properties - Important trends and anomalous properties of carbon - Allotropes of carbon - Uses of carbon - Some important compounds of carbon and silicon – carbonmonoxide, carbon dioxide,Silica, silicones, silicates and zeolites.
12. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
Definition of terms: Air, Water and Soil Pollutions – Environmental Pollution - Atmospheric pollution; Tropospheric Pollution; Gaseous Air Pollutants (Oxides of Sulphur; Oxides of Nitrogen; Hydro Carbons; Oxides of Carbon (CO; CO 2 ) - Global warming and Green house effect - Acid Rain- Particulate Pollutants- Smog - Stratospheric Pollution: Formation and breakdown of Ozone- Ozone hole- effects of depletion of the Ozone layer - Water Pollution: Causes of Water Pollution; International standards for drinking water - Soil Pollution: Pesticides, Industrial Wastes. Strategies to control environmental pollution- waste Management- collection and disposal - Green Chemistry: Green chemistry in day-to-day life; Dry cleaning of clothes; Bleaching of paper; Synthesis of chemicals.
13. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY-SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES AND HYDROCARBONS:
General introduction - Tetravalency of Carbon: shapes of organic compounds - Structural representations of organic compounds - Classification of organic compounds - Nomenclature of organic compounds – Isomerism – Fundamental concepts in organic reaction mechanisms - Fission of covalent bond - Nucleophiles and electrophiles – Electron movements in organic reactions - Electron displacement effects in covalent bonds- Types of Organic reactions – Methods of purification of organic compounds - Qualitative elemental analysis of organic compounds - Quantitative elemental analysis of organic compounds – HYDROCARBONS: Classification of Hydrocarbons - Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism (structural and conformations of ethane only) - Preparation of alkanes - Properties – Physical properties and chemical Reactivity, Substitution reactions – Halogenation(free radical mechanism), Combustion, Controlled – Oxidation, Isomerisation, Aromatization, reaction with steam and Pyrolysis - Alkenes- Nomenclature, structure of ethene, Isomerism(structural and geometrical) - Methods of preparation Properties- Physical and chemical reactions: Addition of Hydrogen, halogen, water, sulphuric acid, Hydrogen halides (Mechanism- ionic and peroxide effect, Markovnikov’s , antiMarkovnikov’s or Kharasch effect). Oxidation, Ozonolysis and Polymerization – Alkynes - Nomenclature and isomerism, structure of acetylene. Methods of preparation of acetylene - Physical properties, Chemical reactions- acidic character of acetylene, addition reactions- of hydrogen, Halogen, Hydrogen halides and water. Polymerization – Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Nomenclature and isomerism. Structure of benzene, Resonance and aromaticity - Preparation of benzene. Physical properties. Chemical properties: Mechanism of electrophilic substitution. Electrophilic substitution reactions- Nitration, Sulphonation, Halogenation, Friedel-Craft’ alkylation and acylation - Directive influence of functional groups in mono substituted benzene, Carcinogenicity and toxicity.
14. SOLID STATE
General characteristics of solid state - Amorphous and crystalline solids - Classification of crystalline solids based on different binding forces (molecular, ionic, metallic and covalent solids ) - Probing the structure of solids: X-ray crystallography - Crystal lattices and unit cells .Bravais lattices primitive and centred unit cells – Number of atoms in a unit cell (primitive, body centred and face centred cubic unit cell) - Close packed structures: Close packing in one dimension, in two dimensions and in three dimensions- tetrahedral and octahedral voids- formula of a compound and number of voids filled- locating tetrahedral and octahedral voids - Packing efficiency in simple cubic, bcc and in hcp, ccp lattice. - Calculations involving unit cell dimensions - density of the unit cell - Imperfections in solids-types of point defects-stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric defects - Electrical properties-conduction of electricity in metals, semiconductors and insulators- band theory of metals - Magnetic properties.
Types of solutions - Expressing concentration of solutions-mass percentage, volume percentage, mass by volume percentage, parts per million, mole fraction, molarity and molality - Solubility: Solubility of a solid in a liquid, solubility of a gas in a liquid,Henry’s law - Vapour pressure of liquid solutions: vapour pressure of liquid- liquid solutions. Raoult’s law as a special case of Henry’s law -vapour pressure of solutions of solids in liquids - Ideal and non- ideal solutions - Colligative properties and determination of molar mass-relative lowering of vapour pressure-elevation of boiling point-depression of freezing point-osmosis and osmotic pressure-reverse osmosis and water purification – Abnormal molar masses-van’t Hoff factor.
16. ELECTROCHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS:ELECTROCHEMISTRY: Electrochemical cells
Galvanic cells :measurement of electrode potentials - Nernst equation-equilibrium constant from Nernst equation- electrochemical cell and Gibbs energy of the cell reaction - Conductance of electrolytic solutions- measurement of the
conductivity of ionic solutions-variation of conductivity and molar conductivity with concentration-strong electrolytes and weak electrolytes-applications of Kohlrausch’s law - Electrolytic cells and electrolysis: Faraday’s laws of electrolysis-products of electrolysis - Batteries: primary batteries and secondary batteries - Fuel cells - Corrosion of metals-Hydrogen economy - CHEMICAL KINETICS - Rate of a chemical reaction - Factors influencing rate of a reaction: dependance of rate on concentration- rate expression and rate constant- order of a reaction, molecularity of a reaction - Integrated rate equations-zero order reactions-first order reactions- half life of a reaction - Pseudo first order reaction - Temperature dependence of the rate of a reaction -effect of catalyst - Collision theory of chemical reaction rates.
17. SURFACE CHEMISTRY
Adsorption and absorption: Distinction between adsorption and absorption- mechanism of adsorption-types of adsorption- characteristics of physisorption-characteristics of chemisorptions-adsorption isotherms- adsorption from solution phase - applications of adsorption - Catalysis: Catalysts, promoters and poisons- auto catalysis- homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis - adsorption theory of heterogeneous catalysis – important features of solid catalysts: (a)activity (b)selectivity-shape-selective catalysis by zeolites- enzyme catalysis-characteristics and mechanism- catalysts in industry – Colloids - Classification of colloids: Classification based on physical state of dispersed phase and dispersion medium- classification based on nature of interaction between dispersed phase and dispersion medium- classification based on type of particles of the dispersed phase- multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids- cleansing action of soaps-preparation of colloids-purification of colloidal solutions- properties of colloidal solutions: Tyndal effect, colour,Brownian movement-charge on colloidal particles, electrophoresis – Emulsions - Colloids Around us- application of colloids.
18. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF METALLURGY
Occurrence of metals - Concentration of ores – levigation, magnetic separation, froth floatation, leaching - Extraction of crude metal from concentrated ore-conversion to oxide, reduction of oxide to the metal - Thermodynamic Principles of metallurgy-Ellingham diagram-limitations-applications- extraction of iron, copper and zinc from their oxides- Electrochemical principles of metallurgy - Oxidation and reduction - Refining of crude metal-distillation, liquation poling, electrolysis, zone refining and vapour phase refining -Uses of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
19. p-BLOCK ELEMENTS: GROUP-15 ELEMENTS
Occurance-electronic configuration, atomic and ionic radii, ionisation energy,electronegativity, physical and chemical properties - Dinitrogen-preparation, properties and uses - Compounds of nitrogen-preparation and properties of ammonia - Oxides of nitrogen - Preparation and properties of nitric acid - Phosphorous-allotropic forms - Phosphine-preparation and properties - Phosphorous halides - Oxoacids of phosphorous - GROUP-16 ELEMENTS - Occurance- electronic configuration, atomic and ionic radii, ionisation enthalpy,electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity,physical and chemical properties - Dioxygen-preparation, properties and uses - Simple oxides - Ozone-preparation,properties, structure and uses - Sulphur-allotropic forms - Sulphur dioxide- preparation, properties and uses - Oxoacids of sulphur - Sulphuric acid-industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses – GROUP-17 ELEMENTS - Occurance, electronic configuration, atomic and ionic radii, ionisation enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity ,physical and chemical properties - Chlorine-preparation, properties and uses - Hydrogen chloride- preparation, properties and uses - Oxoacids of halogens - Interhalogen compounds – GROUP-18 ELEMENTS - Occurance, electronic configuration, ionisation enthalpy,atomic radii electron gain enthalpy, physical and chemical properties (a) Xenon-fluorine compounds-XeF 2 ,XeF 4 and XeF 6 –preparation, hydrolysis and formation of fluoro anions-structures of XeF 2 , XeF 4 and XeF 6 (b) Xenon-oxygen compounds XeO 3 and XeOF 4 - their formation and structures.
20. d AND f BLOCK ELEMENTS & COORDINATION COMPOUNDS d AND f BLOCK ELEMENTS
Position in the periodic table - Electronic configuration of the d-block elements - General properties of the transition elements (d-block) -physical properties, variation in atomic and ionic sizes of transition series, ionisation enthalpies, oxidation states,trends in the M2+/M and M3+/M2+ standard electrode potentials, trends in stability of higher oxidation states, chemical reactivity and values, magnetic properties, formation of coloured ions, formation of complex compounds, catalytic properties, formation of interstitial compounds, alloy formation – Some important compounds of transition elements-oxides and oxoanions of metals - preparation and properties of potassium dichromate and potassium permanganate-structures of chromate, dichromate, manganate and permanganate ions – Inner transition elements (f-block) -lanthanoids- electronic configuration-atomic and ionic sizes-oxidation states- general characteristics - Actinoids-electronic configuration atomic and ionic sizes, oxidation states, general characteristics and comparision with lanthanoids - Some applications of d and f block elements.
Werner’s theory of coordination compounds - Definitions of some terms used in coordination compounds - Nomenclature of coordination compounds - IUPAC nomenclature - Isomerism in coordination compounds - (a) Stereo isomerism-Geometrical and optical isomerism (b) Structural isomerism-linkage, coordination, ionisation and solvate isomerism - Bonding in coordination compounds. (a)Valence bond theory - magnetic properties of coordination compounds-limitations of valence bond theory (b) Crystal field theory (i) Crystal field splitting in octahedral and tetrahedral coordination entities (ii) Colour in coordination compounds - limitations of crystal field theory – Bonding in metal carbonyls - Stability of coordination compounds - Importance and applications of coordination compounds.
Classification of Polymers - Classification based on source, structure, mode of polymerization, molecular forces and growth polymerization - Types of polymerization reactions - addition polymerization or chain growth polymerization - ionic polymerization, free radical mechanism-preparation of addition polymers-polythene, teflon and polyacrylonitrile - condensation polymerization or step growth polymerization-polyamides - preparation of Nylon 6,6 and nylon 6-poly esters- terylene - bakelite, melamine, formaldehyde polymer – copolymerization-Rubber-natural rubber-vulcanisation of rubber-Synthetic rubbers-preparation of neoprene and buna-N - Molecular mass of polymers- number average and weight average molecular masses- poly dispersity index(PDI) - Biodegradable polymers-PHBV, Nylon 2-nylon 6 - Polymers of commercial importance- poly propene, poly styrene, poly vinyl chloride (PVC), urea - formaldehyde resin, glyptal, bakelite- their monomers, structures and uses.
Carbohydrates – Classification of carbohydrates - Monosaccharides: preparation of glucose from sucrose and starch - Properties and structure of glucose- D,L configurations of glucose - Structure of fructose Disaccharides: Sucrose - preparation, structure-Invert sugar- Structures of maltose and lactose-Polysaccharides: Structures of starch cellulose and glycogen- Importance of carbohydrates - Aminoacids: Natural aminoacids-classification of aminoacids - structures and D and L forms - Zwitter ions Proteins: Structures, classification, fibrous and globular - primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary structures of proteins - Denaturation of proteins - Enzymes: Enzymes, mechanism of enzyme action - Vitamins: Vitamin-names- classification of vitamins - sources of vitamins-deficiency diseases of different types of vitamins - Nucleic acids: chemical composition of nucleic acids ,structures of nucleic acids, DNA finger printing biological functions of nucleic acids - Hormones.
23. CHEMISTRY IN EVERYDAY LIFE
Drugs and their classification: (a) Classification of drugs on the basis of pharmocological effect (b) Classification of drugs on the basis of drug action (c) Classification of drugs on the basis of chemical structure (d) Classification of drugs on the basis of molecular targets - Drug-Target interaction-Enzymes as drug targets (a) Catalytic action of enzymes (b) Drug-enzyme interaction Receptors as drug targets - Therapeutic action of different classes of drugs: antacids, antihistamines, neurologically active drugs: tranquilizers, analgesics–non- narcotic, narcotic analgesics, antimicrobials-antibiotics, antiseptics and disinfectants - antifertility drugs - Chemicals in food- artificial sweetening agents, food preservatives, antioxidants in food - Cleansing agents-soaps and synthetic detergents.
24. HALOALKANES AND HALOARENES
Classification and nomenclature - Nature of C-X bond - Methods of preparation: Alkyl halides and aryl halides-from alcohols, from hydrocarbons (a)by free radical halogenation (b) by electrophilic substitution (c) by replacement of diazonium group (Sand-Meyer reaction) (d) by the addition of hydrogen halides and halogens to alkenes - by halogen exchange - Physical properties - melting and boiling points, density and solubility - Chemical reactions: Reactions of haloalkanes (i)Nucleophilic substitution reactions (a) SN2 mechanism (b) SN1 mechanism (c) stereochemical aspects of nucleophilic substitution reactions -optical activity (ii) Elimination reactions (iii) Reaction with metals - Reactions of haloarenes: (i)Nucleophilic substitution (ii)Electrophilic substitution and (iii) Reaction with metals - Polyhalogen compounds: Uses and environmental effects of dichloro methane, trichloromethane, triiodomethane, tetrachloro methane, freons and DDT.
25. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING C, H AND O: (Alcohols, Aldehydes, Phenols, Ethers, Ketones and arboxylic acids) - ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS - Alcohols, phenols and ethers - classification - Nomenclature: (a)Alcohols, (b)phenols and (c)ethers - Structures of hydroxy and ether functional groups - Methods of preparation: Alcohols from alkenes and carbonyl compounds- Phenols from haloarenes, benzene sulphonic acid, diazonium salts, cumene - Physical propertics of alcohols and phenols - Chemical reactions of alcohols and phenols
(i) Reactions involving cleavage of O-H bond-Acidity of alcohols and phenols, esterification (ii) Reactions involving cleavage of C-O bond- reactions with HX, PX 3 , dehydration and oxidation (iii) Reactions of phenols- electrophilic aromatic substitution, Kolbe’s reaction, Reimer – Tiemann reaction, reaction with zinc dust, oxidation – Commercially important alcohols (methanol,ethanol) - Ethers–Methods of preparation: By dehydration of alcohols, Williamson synthesis- Physical properties-Chemical reactions: Cleavage of C-O bond and electrophilic substitution of aromatic ethers - ALDEHYDES AND KETONES - Nomenclature and structure of carbonyl group - Preparation of aldehydes and ketones (1) by oxidation of alcohols (2) by dehydrogenation of alcohols (3) from hydrocarbons –Preparation of aldehydes (1) from acyl chlorides (2) from nitriles and esters (3) from hydrocarbons-Preparation of ketones (1) from acyl chlorides (2) from nitriles (3) from benzene or substituted benzenes - Physical properties of aldehydes and ketones – Chemical reactions of aldehydes and ketones-nucleophilic addition, reduction, oxidation, reactions due to - Hydrogen and other reactions (Cannizzaro reaction, electrophilic substitution reaction) - Uses of aldehydes and ketones – CARBOXYLIC ACIDS - Nomenclature and structure of carboxyl group - Methods of preparation of carboxylic acids- (1)from primary alcohols and aldehydes (2) from alkylbenzenes (3)from nitriles and amides (4)from Grignard reagents (5) from acyl halides and anhydrides (6) from esters - Physical properties - Chemical reactions: (i) Reactions involving cleavage of O- H bond-acidity, reactions with metals and alkalies (ii) Reactions involving cleavage of C-OH bond-formation of anhydride, reactions with PCl 5 , PCl 3 , SOCl 2 , esterification and reaction with ammonia (iii) Reactions involving -COOH group-reduction, decarboxylation (iv) Substitution reactions in the hydrocarbon part – halogenation and ring substitution -Uses of carboxylic acids.
26. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: CONTAINING NITROGEN - I. AMINES
Structure of amines – Classification - Nomenclature - Preparation of amines: reduction of nitro compounds, ammonolysis of alkyl halides, reduction of nitriles, reduction of amides, Gabriel phthalimide synthesis and Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction - Physical properties - Chemical reactions: basic character of amines, alkylation, acylation, carbyl amine reaction, reaction with nitrous acid, reaction with aryl sulphonyl chloride, electrophilic substitution of aromatic amines-bromination, nitration and sulphonation - II. DIAZONIUM SALTS - Methods of preparation of diazonium salts (by diazotization) Physical properties - Chemical reactions. Reactions involving displacement of Nitrogen; Sandmeyer reaction, Gatterman reaction, replacement by i) iodiode and fluoride ions ii) hydrogen, hydroxyl and Nitro groups; Reactions involving retention of diazo group; coupling reactions; Importance of diazonium salts in synthesis of aromatic compounds. III. CYANIDES AND ISOCYANIDES - Structure and nomenclature of cyanides and isocyanides - Preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions of cyanides and isocyanides and uses
Make a proper Time Table
It is very important that you make a time table and stick to it and you will have an exact idea of what you are required to study and the time required for it.
Concept clarity rather than rote learning
It is essential that you have a clear idea of the formulas and concepts rather than rote learning of things for the papers. While you might require it for memorizing formulas it is important that for other stuff you make sure you clear your basics and concepts before moving on.
It is very important make small notes or a comprehensive list of formulas on each covered topic and chapter which will come in handy at the time of revision. This will require you to be regular with your work but will surely make things easy at the time of revision.
It is not possible for you to know everything in your syllabus, at least not at the time of preparation. Sooner or later you will run into a concept or so which will give you trouble and then it is best you seek guidance from an instructor or a teacher. It is necessary that you clear your doubts at regular intervals and don’t prolong things for long. Getting into a good coaching class is nothing to be ashamed off and if anything a regular coaching class will enable you to avoid roadblocks in your preparation.
Even though there may be a complete change in the exam pattern or the expected questions altogether,it is important that you practice on the sample and previous years question papers. You will know the existing pattern and have a fair idea of the type of questions to expect in the paper along with the time constraint.
The paper pattern, duration of the paper and the number of questions to be attempted in the given amount of time is not something you will be able to pick up on the day of the examination. A Mock Test tests a student’s abilities as it not only provides a similar feel of real exams but also helps in building speed and confident to face the exam. Furthermore, they can improve their performance to get an extra edge in actual exams.
Time management can be learnt through thorough practice and regular test taking. So it is important that you practice it and practice it well.
Most the entrance examinations will have negative marking and everyone would suggest you stay clear of questions are not sure about. But some experts are of the opinion that you answer the questions in which you are confused between an option or two because there will also be a chance of getting it right.