According to a survey and analysis conducted by IndiaSpend most of the females in three southern states viz., Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh as well as Maharashtra and West Bengal have high literacy rates and most women entrepreneurs.
According to IndiaSpend analysis of data released by Economic Census 2012 mentioned that around 33 percent of women live in Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
Highlights of IndiaSpend Analysis:-
- Tamil Nadu is the third largest state in terms of female literacy rate with 73.4 percent. However, around 13.5 percent of business establishments are run by women in the state
- Kerala has the highest female literacy rate with 90 percent, but women run only 11 percent businesses in the state
- Andhra Pradesh has a female literacy rate of 59.1 percent. However only 10.5 percent businesses are run by women
- Maharashtra has a female literacy rate of 75.9 percent, and only 8.2 percent of women are engaged in various businesses
- Similarly, West Bengal has a good female literacy rate of 70.5 percent, and 10.3 percent of women are involved in business activities
- Indias’s female literacy rate is 65.5 percent, and only 25.5 percent of women are engaged in various business activities
- Women's participation in India’s workforce has declined drastically in 2016. It was 34 percent in 1999. However, it has been dropped to 25.5 percent in the year 2016
The top five states which are mentioned above have the largest number of women who have completed ten years or more of education. Bihar is at the last place as only 56 percent of women have completed ten years of education. India secured a poor ranking in the Female Entrepreneurship Index 2015 which was released by London-based Global Entrepreneurship Institute.
Case Study Example:
In India, women are engaged in small business activities that they are trying to develop step by step. For instance, Archana Angre who runs a small tiffin centre and restaurant in Chembur, an eastern suburb of Mumbai studied till class nine and started the business in the year 1997. She invested Rs. 2000 initially and three members of her family are involved in the business. She received help from patrons who helped her with capital and investment. Within two years her business developed from 10 tiffins to 100 tiffins.
Later, she acquired a loan of Rs. 50,000 from UCO Bank. She expanded her business and now she is preparing meals for parties and company events. She also received Rs. 2,95,000 under Pradhan Mantri Rozgar Yojana in 2010 which she used to buy utensils and other items necessary for the growth of her business.
Currently, Archana has employed six people (three from her family and three hired workers). Her daughter is pursuing a course in Hotel Management. She plans to open a fully functional restaurant.
So, from the above example, it is clear that Archana took the risk and started the business. She did not care about profits and losses and worked consistently to expand her business and has been running it successfully for the past 19 years.