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Journalism is the gathering, organising and distribution of information through a wide variety of outlets. Considered as an integral part of the media industry, journalism can be traced back to Rome circa 59 B.C. With passing time, the field of journalism has evolved tremendously. From the news coverage of a variety of areas and fields to delivery through different mediums, journalism has come a long way.
Journalism in India took its first steps in public under colonisation. The first newspaper in India - The Bengal Gazette was published on 29th January 1780 marking the official beginning of journalism in India. In that era, print journalism was the only predominant form of journalism but today, one can explore numerous types of journalism in India.
Types of Journalism in India
There are various types of journalism that can be put under certain categories to understand them better. Let us try to comprehend the field of journalism in a simpler way.
Types of journalism Regarding Hard News
Hard news and soft news are broadly classified on the basis of the kind of information they provide. Hard news mostly includes serious factual stories like political, current affairs, government, crime, business, etc.
1. Investigative Journalism
Investigative journalism deals with objectively working towards uncovering the hidden truth or facts on a given matter, person, topic of interest or an event. An investigative journalist finds the facts by studying cases that require a lot of efforts. She/ he exposes scandals for propaganda by making headlines. Due to the complex procedure, a single case can sometimes take months to years to finish. So, to become an investigative journalist, one is required to possess knowledge, patience and persistence.
2. Political Journalism
This is considered as one of the serious types of journalism. The field of political journalism can be broken down into three categories: international political news, national political news and local political news.
A journalist whose niche is political news has to have an in-depth knowledge of political events, political figures, bodies, election campaigns, policies, their impact, the after-math and then report the news in an unbiased manner. It is very important for a political journalist to deliver a piece of information to the audience without impacting it due to a personal opinion on it. So, it would not be too much to say that being a political journalist is a tough and risky job because if your news is hindered by your personal opinions, it can make you look bad in common people’s eyes.
3. Crime Journalism
A crime journalist writes and researches about criminal events for media outlets like newspapers, television, magazines or other platforms. The journalists conduct interviews and also attend court hearings. From murder to some manipulation in the stock market, anything that is against the code of law is a criminal offence. So, a crime journalist covers all kinds of crimes be it a mysterious homicide or money embezzlement at an MNC.
4. Business Journalism
Free flow of communication between two businesses or companies is healthy for a country’s economy. Because of this communication, the economy remains highly interlinked. For instance, a finished product of one company could be used as a raw material at some other company. Policies adopted by a major organisation can affect a huge part of the economy. A merger of two giants can impact the turnover of many small organisations.
So, to promote all of this, a business journalist delivers information on business news. These journalists talk about the stock market, big mergers, stakeholders, etc.
Also Read: Mass Communication Vs Journalism
Types of journalism Regarding Soft News
Soft news covers less serious issues like celebrities, arts, sports and culture. Check out the types of journalism on the basis of soft news below.
1. Arts Journalism
This type of journalism is for people who love art. Arts journalism covers various forms of arts like music, dance, films, literature, painting, drama, poetry, etc. An arts journalist analyses trends in the art world and shares the information with the related audience. Since art journalism is quite popular amongst the audience, many news agencies hire art journalists to gather news in the field.
2. Celebrity Journalism
In the past few years, the word ‘paparazzi’ has become very popular. This term is designated to celebrity journalists. A journalist in this field works to gather information on celebrities be it about their personal lives or about their movies or shows or public appearances.
A celebrity journalist also interviews celebrities and reports gossips as fans always want to know what is happening in the lives of the people they admire. A large number of the audience enjoys watching and reading about their favourite celebrities.
3. Education Journalism
Education journalism deals with reporting different development and events happening in the field of education. These education journalism reports help a policymaker to implement new education policies, when in need. The main focus of an education journalist is to increase awareness about the education system and to promote students to opt for higher education. Usually, the target group for education journalism is students, researchers and teachers.
For your reference, you can also check out the events and developments happening in the higher education world on CollegeDekho.
4. Sports Journalism
As the name suggests, a sports journalist covers news related to a sports series, event or a sportsperson. This type of journalism comes with additional perks like watching live sports events, travelling to different places and it even provides you with the opportunity to meet sportsperson and interview them. To work in this field, one requires to have knowledge of the sports, must be omnipresent and should have good communication skills.
5. Lifestyle Journalism
In recent times, people’s interest in knowing about different lifestyles has increased. Lifestyle journalism serves this purpose by delivering news related to leisure, music, cooking, gardening, entertainment, home decor, fashion, shopping, exercises, yoga, and healthy eating habits. This type of journalism helps readers know the tips to lead a healthy and better lifestyle.
Also Read: BJMC vs BA Journalism: What’s Better?
Types of Journalism Based on the Medium of Delivery
Based on the medium of news delivery, journalism can be divided into three types: TV and Radio Journalism/ Broadcast Journalism, Print Journalism, and Online Journalism.
1. Cyber/ Online/ Digital Journalism
Cyber journalism or online journalism or digital journalism is the latest type of journalism. As the name suggests, this deals with delivering the on different internet platforms. The whole world has become a virtual global village after the introduction of the world wide web (WWW) and the internet.
With a number of easily accessible platforms, cyber or online journalism has risen to popularity. A number of channels dedicated to journalism are followed on Youtube. Even various TV and Print media houses have started going digital through blogs, websites, youtube and different social media applications.
2. Print Journalism
This type of journalism deals with delivering news through newspapers, magazines, etc. Since these mediums can hold the same news or information as other mediums, a journalist can work for both prints as well as some other media at the same time.
Now, whether print journalism is dying or not, that only time will tell. But this topic has been in conflict for a long time now. The higher costs of material, lower subscription numbers and the increment in other easily accessible media platforms have had a huge impact on print journalism.
3. Broadcast/ TV/ Radio Journalism
This kind of journalism deals with broadcasting news through television or radio. Both of these mediums are widely used and possess unique characteristics. A reason why TV journalism is more popular than print journalism is that it does not only deliver news for the eyes but for the ears as well. Audio-visual experience provided to the audience through TV journalism engages them. This journalism has large budgets and resources that help journalists create high-quality content.
Unlike TV, radio includes a large amount of interaction with the target audience. But, it usually gathers a limited number of participants as the broadcasting is done live. Radio channels usually have smaller budgets than TV channels causing limitation to covering fewer stories.
Every type of journalism has its own way of functioning and challenges. For some, one needs to be extremely focused and conscious whereas, some types are more relaxed. So, which type of journalism suits you the best is up to your preferences. But, if you have any questions, you can ask us through our QnA Section.