CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2024-25 - CBSE 12th Class Biology Syllabus Download PDF

Rahul Raj

Updated On: May 22, 2024 01:34 pm IST

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2024-25 was published on March 23, 2024 on its official website. Students can find the CBSE Class 12th Biology Syllabus pdf along with the marking scheme for the AY 2024-25.

CBSE Class 12th Biology Syllabus 2024-25

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CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2024-25 : The Central Board of Secondary Education released the CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2024-25 on March 23, 2024 at The CBSE Class 12 Syllabus 2024-25 will provide the students with updated concepts and the latest marking scheme of the subject. As per the Biology Class 12 Syllabus 2024-25, the Biology paper will comprise 100 marks altogether. Wherein, 70 Marks will be given on theory paper and the remaining 30 Marks will be given on Practical. There are a total of 5 units and 15 chapters in the CBSE 12th Biology syllabus 2024-25. The practical exam is divided into 4 parts. Students will be given marks for familiarity with the apparatus, written exam, practical, and viva.

CBSE has recommended the NCERT book for class 12 biology preparation. Along with the syllabus Central Board of Secondary Education has made available the CBSE Class 12 Exam Pattern 2024 . Students need to make sure that they complete as many CBSE 12th Biology sample papers and CBSE Class 12 Biology previous years' question papers as possible to self-evaluate their preparation after reviewing the entire syllabus and the CBSE Exam Pattern. Read the article to know more about the detailed CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2024-25.

Also Read: CBSE Class 12 Result 2024

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2024-25 PDF

Students can download the CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus for the academic session 2024-25 and start their preparation.

Download CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2024-25 PDF

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2024-25 - Course

Class 12 Biology covers various important topics, such as cell structure and function, ecology, biotechnology, genetics, and human physiology. Check the detailed CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus here.

Unit-VI Reproduction

Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination - types, agencies and examples; out breeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis -spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health

Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control - need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation Heredity and variation
Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans - thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene 8 expression and regulation - lac operon; Genome, Human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter-7: Evolution
Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution - variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.

Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence - drug and alcohol abuse. Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicioususe.

Unit-IX Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter-11: Biotechnology
Principles and Processes Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Applications
Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms - Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

Unit-X Ecology and Environment

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations
Population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes - growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. (Topics excluded: Organism and its Environment, Major Aboitic Factors, Responses to Abioitic Factors, Adaptations) 9

Chapter-14: Ecosystem
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy (Topics excluded: Ecological Succession and Nutrient Cycles).

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation
Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Marking Scheme 2024-25

The table below includes the marks for the CBSE Class 12 Biology theory exam. Students can find out the important chapters according to the marks allotted to them, and prepare accordingly for board exams.





Genetics and Evolution


Biology and Human Welfare


Biotechnology and its Applications


Ecology and Environment


Total Marks


CBSE conducts Class 12 Biology practical exam for 30 marks. The distribution of marks is presented in the table below:

Evaluation Scheme


One Major Experiment (5)


One Minor Experiment (2 & 3)


Slide Preparation (1 & 4)




Practical Record + VIVA Voce


Investigatory Project and its Project Record + VIVA Voce


Total Marks


List of Experiments

  1. Make a temporary mount to observe pollen germination.
  2. Through the quadrat method, study the plant population density.
  3. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
  4. Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.
CBSE 12th Practical Exam for Visually Impaired Students: Evaluation Scheme
Topic Marks
Identification/Familiarity with the apparatus 5
Written test (Based on given/prescribed practicals) 10
Practical Records 5
Viva 10
Total 30

CBSE Class 12 Biology Question Paper Pattern 2024-25

Biology paper carries 70 marks for theory and 30 marks for practical. Tabulated below is the updated CBSE class 12 exam pattern 2024 for Biology.

Question Paper Design (Theory) 2024-25


Demonstrate the Knowledge and Understanding


Application of Knowledge / Concepts


Analyse, Evaluate and Create


  • Types of questions: Source-based, Case-based, Passage-based, Integrated assessment questions; SA; Assertion-Reasoning type questions; VSA with MCQs.
  • There would be an internal choice of about thirty-three percent.
Suggestive verbs for various competencies
  • Demonstrate, Knowledge and Understanding State, name, list, identify, define, suggest, describe, outline, summarize, etc.
  • Application of Knowledge/Concepts Calculate, illustrate, show, adapt, explain, distinguish, etc.
  • Analyze, Evaluate and Create Interpret, analyse, compare, contrast, examine, evaluate, discuss, construct, etc.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Deleted Syllabus 2024-25

Go through the list of deleted topics in the CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus in the theory paper. The page numbers are provided along with the topics:


Page No.

Dropped Topics/Chapters

Chapter 1:

Reproduction in



Full Chapter

Chapter 9:

Strategies for

Enhancement in

Food Production



Full Chapter

Chapter 13:

Organisms and










13.1 Organism and Its


13.1.1 Major Abiotic


13.1.2 Responses to

Abiotic Factors

13.1.3 Adaptations

Summary (para 2)

Ques. 1, 2, 3, 9, 10,

11, 12

14.6 Ecological


14.6.1 Succession of


14.7 Nutrient Cycling

14.7.1 Ecosystem –

Carbon Cycle

14.7.2 Ecosystem –

Phosphorus Cycle

14.8 Ecosystem Services

Chapter 16:




Full Chapter

In addition to theory, some topics are eliminated from the CBSE Class 12 practical exam too. Check out the topics to be avoided.

Unit & Chapter

Deleted Topic

Unit-VI Reproduction

Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms

(whole chapter deleted)

Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

(whole chapter deleted)

Unit-X Ecology and Environment

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations

Organism and its Environment, Major Aboitic Factors, Responses to Abioitic Factors, Adaptations

Unit-X Ecology and Environment

Chapter-14: Ecosystem

Ecological Succession and Nutrient Cycles


A. List of Experiments

2. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.

3. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organism.

4. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at two widely different sites.

8. Study the effect of different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch.


B. Study/observation of the following (Spotting)

10. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.

11. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Prescribed Books

Students of CBSE 12th science stream must follow the NCERT Books for Biology. Other than these, students can refer to other reference books as well for better preparation. Some of the CBSE Class 12 Biology prescribed books are:

  • Biology, Class-XII, Published by NCERT
  • Other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT (consider multimedia also)
  • Biology Supplementary Material (Revised). Available on CBSE website.

How to Download CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2024-25

Students can visit the official website of the CBSE Board to download the CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2024-25. To download the syllabus online, they can follow the steps given below:

  • Step 1: Visit the official website of CBSE at
  • Step 2: From the overview page, look for the ‘Curriculum’ tab.
  • Step 3: Select the ‘Senior Secondary Curriculum (XI-XII)’ option.
  • Step 4: Then select Academic Electives (Group-A).
  • Step 5: Select the Biology syllabus. The Biology curriculum for class 12 CBSE 2024 will appear on the screen. Save the syllabus as a PDF.

General Guidelines

In the practical examination, students will get a two-hour duration. The question paper will include 15 practical skill-based very short answer-type questions. Out of this, 10 questions will have to be answered by students. The questions should be based on the listed practicals. Students should aim to answer every question within two minutes.

In the practical file, students are expected to record at least five experiments. They must follow the correct format of writing an experiment in the practical file, which includes aim, apparatus required, simple theory, procedure, related practical skills, precautions, etc. These practicals will be checked and signed by the internal examiner. During the viva, questions may be generated based on basic theory/principle/concept, apparatus/materials/chemicals required, procedure, precautions, sources of error etc.


How many chapters from the CBSE 12th Biology syllabus have been deleted?

A total of 4 chapters have been deleted from the CBSE 12th Biology syllabus including chapters 1, 9, 13, and 16.

How can I prepare questions for CBSE Class 12 Biology?

Students can refer to the previous year question papers to prepare for the Biology exam. They can check the questions and focus on the pattern of questions.

Is it necessary to appear for the CBSE Class 12 Biology practical exam 2025?

CBSE Class 12 Biology practical exam is conducted for 30 marks. Students should effectively prepare for the project, viva, slide, and more to increase the overall marks in board exams.

Which topics should be focused more in the CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus?

Students can check the CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus to know the marks weightage. Among all the Units, Genetics and Evolution has the highest weightage. Students can pay more attention to this unit. 

Can I get the CBSE Class 12th Biology Syllabus 2024-25 online?

By visiting the official website, students can get the CBSE Class 12th Biology syllabus in PDF format. Students can download the PDF file and prepare for board exams. 

Which books should be referred to prepare for the CBSE class 12 Biology exams?

Students can go through the NCERT book prescribed by the CBSE. The book includes a complete syllabus for class 12th. Students can prepare the topics for board exams.

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